The principal accounting policies applied in the preparation of the group and company financial statements are set out below. These policies are consistent with those applied in the previous year, except for the changes required by Standards and Interpretations effective in 2016.
The annual financial statements are prepared in accordance with, and comply with, the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) adopted by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB), interpretations issued by the IFRS Interpretations Committee (IFRS IC) of the IASB, the JSE Listings Requirements, the SAICA Financial Reporting Guides as issued by the Accounting Practices Committee and Financial Reporting Pronouncements as issued by the Financial Reporting Standards Council and the requirements of the Companies Act.
They have been prepared in accordance with the going concern principle under the historical cost basis, except for the following:
The preparation of the consolidated financial statements in conformity with IFRS requires management to make judgements, estimates and assumptions that affect the application of accounting policies and the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, income and expenses. Actual results may differ from these estimates.
Estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognised prospectively.
The areas involving a higher degree of judgement or complexity, or areas where assumptions and estimates are significant to the consolidated financial statements are disclosed in the notes to these financial statements.
These consolidated financial statements are presented in rands, which is the company’s functional currency and the group’s presentation currency. All financial information presented in rands is rounded to the nearest million, except when otherwise indicated.
The following standards, amendments and interpretations have been adopted by the group for the first time for the financial year ended 31 March 2016. As these amendments merely clarify the existing requirements, they do not affect the group’s accounting policies or any of the disclosures.
Standard, amendment or interpretation
1 July 2014
Defined benefit plans: Employee contributions (Amendments to IAS 19)
Annual improvements cycle 2010 – 2012
Annual improvements cycle 2011 – 2013
A number of new standards, amendments to standards and interpretations have been issued but are not yet effective for the group as at the reporting date of 31 March 2016.
The following new standards, amendments to standards and interpretations are material to the group.
Standard, amendment or interpretation
1 January 2018
IFRS 9 Financial instruments addresses the classification, measurement and recognition of financial assets and financial liabilities. The complete version of IFRS 9 was issued in July 2014. It replaces the guidance in IAS 39 that relates to the classification and measurement of financial instruments.
IFRS 9 retains, but simplifies, the mixed measurement model and establishes three primary measurement categories for financial assets: amortised cost, fair value through the statement of other comprehensive income and fair value through profit or loss. The basis of classification depends on the entity’s business model and the contractual cash flow characteristics of the financial asset.
Investments in equity instruments are required to be measured at fair value through profit or loss with the irrevocable option at inception to present changes in fair value in the statement of other comprehensive income, not recycling to profit or loss.
There is now a new expected credit losses model that replaces the incurred loss impairment model used in IAS 39.
For financial liabilities there were no changes to classification and measurement except for the recognition of changes in own credit risk in other comprehensive income, for liabilities designated at fair value through profit or loss.
IFRS 9 relaxes the requirements for hedge effectiveness by replacing the bright line hedge effectiveness tests. It requires an economic relationship between the hedged item and hedging instrument and for the ‘hedged ratio’ to be the same as the one management actually uses for risk management purposes.
Contemporaneous documentation is still required but is different to that currently prepared under IAS 39.
The standard is effective for accounting periods beginning on or after 1 January 2018. Early adoption is permitted.
The group is yet to assess IFRS 9’s full impact.
1 January 2018
IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers deals with revenue recognition and establishes principles for reporting useful information to users of financial statements about the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from an entity’s contracts with customers. Revenue is recognised when a customer obtains control of a good or service and thus has the ability to direct the use and obtain the benefits from the good or service.
The standard replaces IAS 18 Revenue and IAS 11 Construction Contracts and related interpretations. The standard is effective for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2018 and earlier application is permitted.
The group does not expect significant impact on recognition and measurement of revenue as a result of the adopting this IFRS. However, the group is still assessing the impact of the new disclosure requirements on its accounting systems.
1 January 2019
IFRS 16 Leases specifies how an IFRS reporter will recognise, measure, present and disclose leases. The standard provides a single lessee accounting model, requiring lessees to recognise assets and liabilities for all leases unless the lease term is 12 months or less or the underlying asset has a low value. Lessors continue to classify leases as operating or finance, with IFRS 16’s approach to lessor accounting substantially unchanged from its predecessor, IAS 17.
There are no other standards, amendments to standards and interpretations that are not yet effective that would be expected to have a significant impact on the group.
Subsidiaries are all entities (including structured entities) over which the group has control. The group controls an entity when it is exposed to, or has rights to, variable returns from its involvement with the entity and has the ability to affect those returns through its power over the entity. Subsidiaries are consolidated from the date on which control is transferred to the group. They are deconsolidated from the date that control ceases.
The group applies the acquisition method to account for business combinations. The consideration transferred for the acquisition of a subsidiary is the fair values of the assets transferred, the liabilities incurred to the former owners of the acquiree and the equity interests issued by the group. The consideration transferred includes the fair value of any asset or liability resulting from a contingent consideration arrangement.
Identifiable assets acquired and liabilities and contingent liabilities assumed in a business combination are measured initially at their fair values at the acquisition date. Costs related to the acquisition, other than those associated with the issue of debt or equity securities, that the group incurs in connection with a business combination are expensed as incurred.
If the business combination is achieved in stages, the acquisition date carrying value of the acquirer’s previously held equity interest in the acquiree is remeasured to fair value at the acquisition date, with the resulting gains or losses on remeasurement recognised in profit or loss.
Any contingent consideration to be transferred by the group is recognised at fair value at the acquisition date. Subsequent changes to the fair value of the contingent consideration that is an asset or liability is recognised in profit or loss. Contingent consideration that is classified as equity is not remeasured and its subsequent settlement is accounted for within equity.
All material intra-group transactions, balances and unrealised gains on intra-group transactions are eliminated. Unrealised losses are also eliminated in the same way as unrealised gains but only to the extent that there is no evidence of impairment.
The accounting policies of subsidiaries have been changed when necessary to align them with the policies adopted by the group. Losses applicable to the non-controlling interest in a subsidiary are allocated to the non-controlling interest even if doing so causes the non-controlling interest to have a deficit balance.
On the loss of control the group derecognises the assets and liabilities of the subsidiary, any non-controlling interests and components of equity related to the subsidiary. This may mean that amounts previously recognised in other comprehensive income are reclassified to profit or loss. If the group retains any interest in the previous subsidiary, then such interest is measured at fair value at the date the control is lost, with the change in carrying amount recognised in profit or loss. The fair value is the initial carrying amount for the purposes of subsequently accounting for the retained interest as an associate, joint venture or financial asset, depending on the level of influence retained.
The company’s separate financial statements account for subsidiaries at cost less any accumulated impairment losses.
Non-controlling interests in the net assets of subsidiaries are separately identified and presented from the group’s equity therein. Non-controlling interests are initially measured either at fair value or at the non-controlling interest’s proportionate share of the subsidiary’s identifiable net assets at the acquisition date. This is not an accounting policy election and the group will apply the choice of measurement basis on an acquisition-by-acquisition basis.
Subsequently the non-controlling interest consists of the amount attributed to such interest at initial recognition plus the non-controlling interest’s share of change in equity since the date of the combination.
Non-controlling interests are treated as equity participants of the subsidiary companies. The group treats all acquisitions and disposals of its non-controlling interests in subsidiary companies, which do not result in a loss of control, as an equity transaction. The carrying amounts of the controlling and non-controlling interests are adjusted to reflect the change in their relative interests in the subsidiary. Any difference between the amount by which the non-controlling interests are adjusted and fair value of the consideration paid or received is recognised directly in equity and attributed to the owners of the group.
A structured entity is an entity that has been designed so that voting or similar rights are not the dominant factor in deciding who controls the entity, such as when any voting rights relate to administrative tasks only, and the relevant activities are directed by means of contractual arrangements. The group establishes structured entities for business purposes. The group may or may not have any direct or indirect shareholdings in these entities.
Joint arrangements are classified as either joint operations or joint ventures depending on the contractual rights and obligations of each investor. The group has assessed the nature of its joint arrangements and has determined them to be joint ventures. Joint ventures are accounted for using the equity method.
Under the equity method of accounting, interests in joint ventures are initially recognised at cost and adjusted thereafter to recognise the group’s share of the post-acquisition profits or losses and movements in other comprehensive income. When the group’s share of losses in a joint venture equals or exceeds its interests in the joint ventures (which includes any long-term interests that, in substance, form part of the group’s net investment in the joint ventures), the group does not recognise further losses, unless it has incurred legal or constructive obligations or made payments on behalf of the joint ventures.
Associates are entities in which the group has significant influence, but not control, over the financial and operating policies. Significant influence is presumed to exist when the group holds between 20 and 50 per cent of the voting power of another entity. Investments in associates are accounted for using the equity method of accounting and are recognised initially at cost.
The group’s share of post-acquisition profit or loss is recognised in the income statement and its share of post-acquisition movements in other comprehensive income is recognised in other comprehensive income, with a corresponding adjustment to the carrying amount of the investment.
When the group’s share of losses in an associate equals or exceeds its interest in that associate, including any other unsecured receivables, the group does not recognise any further losses, unless the group has incurred legal or constructive obligations or made payments on behalf of the associate.
Unrealised gains on transactions between the group and its associates are eliminated to the extent of the group’s interest in the associates. Unrealised losses are also eliminated in the same way as unrealised gains but only to the extent that there is no evidence of impairment. Associates’ accounting policies have been changed, where material and necessary, to ensure consistency with the policies adopted by the group. Dilution gains and losses arising in investments in associates are recognised in the income statement.
If the ownership interest in an associate is reduced, but significant influence is retained, only a proportionate share of the amounts previously recognised in other comprehensive income is reclassified to profit or loss where appropriate.
The group determines at each reporting date whether there is any objective evidence that the investment in the associate is impaired. If this is the case, the group calculates the amount of impairment as the difference between the recoverable amount of the associate and its carrying value, and recognises the amount adjacent to share of profit/loss of associates in the income statement.
The group’s investment in associates includes goodwill identified on acquisition, net of any accumulated impairment losses.
Collective investment schemes (or unit trusts) managed by the group are consolidated in the same way as subsidiary companies, provided the group can demonstrate the following:
The consolidated financial assets of the collective investment schemes attributable to unitholders are shown within ‘financial assets held under multi-manager investment contracts’ in the group statement of financial position with a matching linked liability to the unitholders shown within ‘financial liabilities held under multi-manager investment contracts’.
Fair value adjustments to the financial assets and liabilities of collective investment schemes are recognised in profit or loss.
When the size of the investment in the unit trust falls below the 20 per cent threshold it is accounted for as an investment and recorded at fair value through profit or loss.
Items included in the financial statements of each of the group’s entities are measured using the currency of the primary economic environment in which the entity operates, in other words its functional currency.
These consolidated financial statements are presented in rands, which is the company’s functional currency and the group’s presentation currency.
Foreign currency transactions are translated into the functional currency using the exchange rates prevailing at the date of the transactions. Foreign exchange gains and losses resulting from the settlement of such transactions are recognised in profit or loss.
Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies at the reporting date are translated to the functional currency at the exchange rates at that date. Foreign exchange gains and losses resulting from the translation of monetary assets and liabilities are recognised in profit or loss, except when deferred in other comprehensive income for qualifying cash flow hedges.
All foreign exchange gains and losses, including those that relate to borrowings and cash and cash equivalents, are presented in the income statement within ‘investment income or finance costs’ respectively.
Translation differences on monetary items, such as financial assets held at fair value through profit or loss, are reported as part of the fair value gain or loss on such instruments. Non-monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies that are measured at fair value are translated to the functional currency at the exchange rate at the date that the fair value was determined. Translation differences on non-monetary financial assets and liabilities, such as equities held at fair value through profit or loss, are recognised in profit or loss as part of the fair value gain or loss. Translation differences on non-monetary items, such as equities classified as available-for-sale financial assets, are included in other comprehensive income.
Items included in the financial statements of each of the group’s entities are measured using the currency of the primary economic environment in which the entity operates (‘the functional currency’). The results and financial positions of all the group entities (none of which has the currency of a hyper-inflationary economy) that have a functional currency different from the presentation currency of the group are translated into South African rand as follows:
When the settlement of a monetary item receivable from or payable to a foreign operation is neither planned nor likely to occur in the foreseeable future, foreign currency gains or losses on such item are considered to form part of the net investment in the foreign operation and are recognised in other comprehensive income and presented in the foreign currency translation reserve in equity.
On the disposal of a foreign operation (that is, a disposal of the group’s entire interest in a foreign operation, or a disposal involving loss of control over a subsidiary that includes a foreign operation, a disposal involving loss of joint control over a jointly controlled entity that includes a foreign operation, or a disposal involving loss of significant influence over an associate that includes a foreign operation) all of the exchange differences accumulated in equity in respect of that operation are reclassified to profit or loss.
In the case of a partial disposal that does not result in the group losing control over a subsidiary that includes a foreign operation, the proportionate share of accumulated exchange differences are reattributed to non-controlling interests and are not recognised in profit or loss. For all other partial disposals (that is, reductions in the group’s ownership interest in associates or jointly controlled entities that do not result in the group losing significant influence or joint control) the proportionate share of the accumulated exchange difference is reclassified to profit or loss.
Goodwill and fair value adjustments arising on the acquisition of a foreign entity are treated as the foreign entity’s assets and liabilities and are translated at the reporting date at the exchange rate at that date.
Items of property and equipment are measured at cost less any accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses.
Cost includes expenditure that is directly attributable to the acquisition of the asset. Cost may also include transfers from equity of any gains/losses on qualifying cash flow hedges of foreign currency purchases of property, plant and equipment.
Subsequent costs are included in the asset’s carrying amount or recognised as a separate asset, as appropriate, only when it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the items will flow to the group and the cost of the item can be measured reliably. The carrying amount of the replaced part is derecognised. All day-to-day servicing of property and equipment is recognised in profit or loss as incurred.
Depreciation is recognised in profit or loss on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of each part of an item of property and equipment. Leased assets are depreciated over the shorter of the lease term and their useful lives. Land is not depreciated. The expected useful lives applied are as follows:
Item of property and equipment
Period of depreciation
Leasehold property and improvements
Shorter of useful life or period of lease
Computer and network equipment
3 to 5 years
4 to 10 years
Furniture and fittings
4 to 10 years
4 to 7 years
Depreciation methods, residual values and useful lives are reviewed at each reporting date and adjusted if required.
Gains and losses on disposals of property and equipment are determined by comparing proceeds from the disposal with the carrying amount of the relevant asset and are recognised in profit or loss.
Goodwill arises on the acquisition of subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures.
The group measures goodwill at the acquisition date as:
When the excess is negative, a bargain purchase gain is recognised immediately in profit or loss. The consideration transferred does not include amounts related to the settlement of pre-existing relationships. Such amounts are generally recognised in profit or loss.
Goodwill is measured at cost less accumulated impairment losses and is tested annually for impairment. In respect of equity-accounted investees (associates and joint ventures), the carrying amount of goodwill is included in the carrying amount of the investment, and an impairment loss on such an investment is not allocated to any asset, including goodwill, that forms part of the carrying amount of the equity-accounted investee. Gains and losses on the disposal of an entity are stated after deducting the carrying amount of goodwill relating to the entity sold.
Intangible assets are measured at cost less accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses.
Purchased computer software and the direct costs associated with the customisation and installation thereof, are capitalised and amortised over the useful life of the asset.
Purchased computer software licences are capitalised on the basis of the costs incurred to acquire and bring into use the specific software. These costs are amortised over the useful life of the asset. Costs that are directly associated with the production of identifiable and unique software products, which will be controlled by the group and generate economic benefits exceeding costs beyond one year, are recognised as intangible assets. The directly associated costs include employee costs and an appropriate portion of relevant overheads of the system development team. All other costs associated with developing or maintaining computer software programs are recognised in profit or loss as incurred.
Expenditure, which enhances and extends the benefits of computer software programs beyond their original specifications and lives, is recognised as a capital improvement and added to the original cost of the software. Previously expensed costs are not subsequently capitalised.
Computer software development costs recognised as assets are amortised on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives of between three and five years.(b) Contractual customer relationships acquired as part of a business combination
Contractual customer relationships acquired as part of a business combination are recognised as intangible assets. The initial recognition of the customer relationship is determined by estimating the net present value of future cash flows from the contracts in force at the date of acquisition. These customer relationships are amortised on a straight-line basis over the estimated life of the acquired contracts.(c) Deferred acquisition costs (DAC)
Incremental costs directly attributable to securing rights to receive fees for multi-manager investment services sold with investment contracts are capitalised as intangible assets if they can be separately identified, measured reliably and it is probable that their value will be recovered. An incremental cost is one that would not have been incurred if the group had not secured the investment contract.
The DAC represents the group’s contractual right to benefit from providing multi-manager investment services and is amortised on a straight-line basis over the period in which the group expects to recognise the related revenue, not exceeding five years. The costs of securing the right to provide these services do not include transaction costs relating to the origination of the investment contract.
The accounting policy in respect of DAC relating to insurance contracts is described in the relevant accounting policy on insurance contracts.(d) Trademarks and licences
No value is attributed to internally developed trademarks, patents and similar rights. Costs incurred on these items are recognised in profit and loss as incurred. Expenditure on the development and marketing of the group’s brands is also recognised in profit and loss as incurred.
The group classifies its financial assets into the following categories:
The classification depends on the purpose for which the financial assets were acquired.
All financial assets are initially recognised at fair value plus, in the case of financial assets not at fair value through profit or loss, any directly attributable transaction costs. The best evidence of fair value on initial recognition is the transaction price, unless the fair value is evidenced by comparison with other observable current market transactions in the same instrument or based on discounted cash flow models and option pricing valuation techniques of which variables include only data from observable markets. Where the transaction price is not necessarily the fair value of the financial asset, the day-one gain or loss is deferred and recognised over the term that the financial asset is expected to be held.
The purchases and sales of financial assets that require delivery are recognised on trade date, being the date on which the group commits to purchase or sell the asset. Financial assets are derecognised when the rights to receive cash flows from the investments have expired or where they have been transferred and the group has also transferred the risks and rewards of ownership.
Subsequent to initial recognition the fair values of financial assets are based on quoted market prices, excluding transaction costs. If the market for a financial asset is not active or an instrument is an unlisted instrument, the fair value is estimated using valuation techniques. These include the use of recent arm’s length transactions, reference to other instruments that are substantially the same, discounted cash flow analysis and option pricing models.
When a discounted cash flow analysis is used to determine the value of financial assets, estimated future cash flows are based on management’s best estimates and the discount rate is a market-related rate, at the reporting date, for a financial asset with similar terms and conditions. Where option pricing models are used inputs are based on observable market indicators at the reporting date.
This category has two subcategories: financial assets held for trading and those designated at fair value through profit or loss.
A financial asset is classified as held for trading if acquired principally for the purpose of selling in the short term, or if it forms part of a portfolio of financial assets in which there is evidence of short-term profit-taking.
Derivatives are also classified as held for trading, unless they are designated as hedges at inception. All classes of financial assets classified on the statement of financial position as ‘financial assets held under multi-manager investment contracts’ are designated at fair value through profit or loss.
A financial asset is designated as fair value through profit or loss if the group manages such investments and makes purchase and sale decisions based on their fair value in accordance with the group’s documented risk management or investment strategy. Under these criteria the main classes of financial assets designated by the group are preference shares, unit trusts and debt securities. All classes of financial assets classified on the statement of financial position as ‘assets of cell-captive insurance contracts’ are designated at fair value through profit or loss. Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss are measured at fair value and changes therein are recognised in profit or loss.(b) Loans and receivables
Loans and receivables are non-derivative financial assets with fixed or determinable payments that are not quoted in an active market and include purchased loans. This category does not include those loans and receivables that the group intends to sell in the short term or that it has designated at fair value through profit or loss or available for sale. Origination transaction costs and origination fees are capitalised to the value of the loan. Loans and receivables are carried at amortised cost using the effective interest method, less any impairment losses.
Receivables arising from insurance contracts are also classified into this category and are reviewed for impairment as part of the impairment review of loans and receivables.
Short-term trade receivables are carried at original invoice amount less an estimate made for impairment based on a review of all outstanding amounts at the end of each reporting period. The difference between the fair value of short-term receivables and the invoice amount is immaterial. Long-term trade receivables are initially recognised at fair value and subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method, less any impairment losses.
Impairment is recognised in profit or loss when there is objective evidence that the group will not be able to collect all amounts due according to the original terms of the receivables. Objective evidence that receivables are impaired includes observable data that comes to the attention of the company regarding the following events:
Held-to-maturity financial assets are non-derivative financial assets with fixed or determinable payments and fixed maturities that management has the positive intention and ability to hold to maturity, other than those that meet the definition of loans and receivables. Any sale or reclassification of a more than an insignificant amount of held-to-maturity investments not close to their maturity would result in the reclassification of all held-to-maturity investments as available for sale, and prevent the group from classifying investment securities as held to maturity for the current and the following two financial years.
The only class of financial asset classified as held to maturity is preference shares held for securitisation operations. Held-to-maturity financial assets are carried at amortised cost using the effective interest method, less any impairment losses.(d) Available-for-sale financial assets
Available-for-sale financial assets are those intended to be held for an indefinite period of time and may be sold in response to liquidity needs or changes in interest rate, exchange rates or equity prices. Financial assets that are designated in this category or not classified in any of the other categories are classified as available-for-sale financial assets. The main classes of assets classified as available for sale are unlisted debt, equity and property securities.
Subsequent to initial recognition available-for-sale financial assets are measured at fair value and changes therein, other than impairment losses and foreign currency differences on available-for-sale monetary items, are recognised directly in other comprehensive income and presented in the non-distributable reserve in equity. When an investment is derecognised, the cumulative gain or loss in equity is reclassified to profit or loss.
Interest income received on available-for-sale financial assets is recognised in profit or loss, using the effective interest rate method. Dividend income received on available-for-sale financial assets is recognised in profit or loss when the group’s right to receive payments is established.
A financial asset not carried at fair value through profit or loss is assessed at each reporting date to determine whether there is objective evidence that it is impaired. A financial asset is impaired if objective evidence indicates that a loss event has occurred after the initial recognition of the asset and that the loss event had a negative effect on the estimated future cash flows of that asset that can be estimated reliably. Objective evidence that financial assets (including equity securities) are impaired can include default or delinquency by a debtor, restructuring of an amount due to the group on terms that the group would not consider otherwise, or disappearance of an active market for a security. In addition, for an investment in an equity security, a significant or prolonged decline in its fair value below its cost is objective evidence of impairment.
The group assesses whether there is objective evidence that a financial asset is impaired at each reporting date. A financial asset is impaired, and impairment losses are recognised in profit or loss only if there is objective evidence of impairment, as a result of one or more events that have occurred after the initial recognition of the asset and that event has an impact on the estimated future cash flows of the financial asset that can be reliably estimated.
If there is objective evidence that an impairment loss has been incurred on loans and receivables or held-to-maturity investments carried at amortised cost, the amount of the loss is measured as the difference between the asset’s carrying amount and the present value of estimated future cash flows discounted at the original effective interest rate of the financial asset. The carrying amount of the asset is reduced and the amount of the loss is recognised in profit or loss. If a held-to-maturity investment or a loan has a variable interest rate, the discount rate for measuring any impairment loss is the current effective interest rate determined under contract. As a practical expedient the group may measure impairment on the basis of an instrument’s fair value using an observable market price.
If, in a subsequent period, the amount of the impairment loss decreases and the decrease can be related objectively to an event occurring after the impairment was recognised, such as improved credit rating, the previously recognised impairment loss is reversed and is recognised in profit or loss.(b) Assets classified as available for sale
The group assesses at the end of each reporting period whether there is objective evidence that a financial asset or a group of financial assets is impaired. For debt securities the group uses the criteria referred to in (a) above. In the case of equity investments classified as available for sale a significant or prolonged decline in the fair value of the security below its cost is also evidence that the assets are impaired. If any such evidence exists for available-for-sale financial assets the cumulative loss – measured as the difference between the acquisition cost and the current fair value, less any impairment loss on that financial asset previously recognised in profit or loss – is removed from equity and recognised in profit or loss. Impairment losses recognised in the profit or loss on equity instruments are not reversed through profit or loss. If, in a subsequent period, the fair value of a debt instrument classified as available for sale increases and the increase can be objectively related to an event occurring after the impairment loss was recognised in profit or loss, the impairment loss is reversed through profit or loss.
Goodwill is assessed annually for impairment. For purposes of impairment testing goodwill is allocated to cash-generating units, being the lowest component of the business which is expected to generate cash flows that are largely independent of any other business component. Each of those cash-generating units represents a grouping of assets no larger than an operating segment before aggregation as used for segmental reporting purposes in the group financial statements. Impairment losses relating to goodwill are not reversed.(b) Impairment of other non-financial assets
Assets that have an indefinite useful life are not subject to amortisation and are tested annually for impairment at each reporting date. In addition, assets that have an indefinite useful life are reviewed for impairment whenever events or a change in circumstances during the year indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. Assets that are subject to amortisation are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable.
An impairment loss is recognised for the amount by which the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the higher of the fair value of the asset less costs to sell and value in use. Value in use is the present value of projected cash flows covering the remaining useful life of the asset. For the purposes of assessing impairment assets are grouped at the lowest levels for which there are separately identifiable cash flows.
Impairment losses recognised in prior periods are assessed at each reporting date for any indications that the loss has decreased or no longer exists. An impairment loss is reversed if there has been a change in the estimates used to determine the recoverable amount. An impairment loss is reversed only to the extent that the asset’s carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation or amortisation, if no impairment loss had been recognised.
Derivatives are initially recognised at fair value at the date on which a derivative contract is entered into and are subsequently remeasured to fair value at each reporting date. Any attributable transaction costs are recognised in profit or loss as incurred. The fair value of publicly traded derivatives are based on quoted bid prices for assets held or liabilities to be issued and the current offer prices for assets to be acquired and liabilities held. The fair value of non-traded derivatives is based on discounted cash flow analyses and option pricing models as appropriate.
All derivative instruments of the group are carried as assets when the fair value is positive and as liabilities when the fair value is negative, subject to offsetting principles. The method of recognising the resulting fair value gain or loss depends on whether the derivative is designated as a hedging instrument and, if so, the nature of the item being hedged. The group designates derivatives as hedges of the interest payable (cash flow hedge) on the senior debt.
At the inception of the transaction the group documents the relationship between hedging instruments and hedged items, as well as its risk management objectives and strategy for undertaking various hedge transactions. The group also documents its assessment, both at hedge inception and on an ongoing basis, of whether the derivatives that are used in hedging transactions are expected to be, and have been, highly effective in off-setting changes in cash flows of hedged items. The fair values of derivative instruments used for hedging purposes are disclosed in the notes to the financial statements.
The effective portion of changes in the fair value of the derivatives that are designated and qualify as cash flow hedges is recognised in other comprehensive income and presented in the cash flow hedge reserve in equity. The gain or loss relating to any ineffective portion is recognised immediately in profit or loss. Amounts accumulated in equity are recycled to profit or loss in the periods in which the hedged item affects profit or loss.
When a hedging instrument expires or is sold, or when a hedge no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting, any cumulative gain or loss existing in equity at that time remains in equity and is recognised when the hedged item is ultimately recognised in profit or loss.(b) Derivatives that do not qualify for hedge accounting
Certain derivative instruments do not qualify for hedge accounting. Changes in the fair value of all such derivative instruments are recognised immediately in profit or loss.
Cash and cash equivalents include the following:
Cash and cash equivalents backing financial liabilities held under multi-manager investment contracts and liabilities of cell-captive insurance contracts are included in the definition of cash and cash equivalents. However, given the restrictions involved in accessing this cash, it is separately identified on the statement of cash flows. Cash and cash equivalents are carried at amortised cost in the statement of financial position.
Other receivables include contract work in progress in respect of unbilled fee-based services, which are stated at net realisable value. Net realisable value is generally based on the unbilled time incurred to date at the expected charge rates and is the undiscounted value of the receivable.
Ordinary shares and qualifying preference shares are classified as equity. Incremental costs directly attributable to the issue of equity are recognised as a deduction from equity, net of any tax effects. Incremental costs directly attributable to the issue of ordinary shares and share options as consideration for the acquisition of a business are included in the cost of acquisition.(b) Dividend distributions
Dividend distributions on ordinary shares are recognised as a reduction in equity in the period in which they are approved by the company’s shareholders. Distributions declared after the reporting date are not recognised but are disclosed in the financial statements.(c) Treasury shares
Where any group company purchases the company’s equity share capital (treasury shares), the consideration paid, including any directly attributable incremental costs (net of income taxes) is deducted from equity attributable to the company’s equity holders until the shares are cancelled or reissued. Where such ordinary shares are subsequently reissued, any consideration received, net of any directly attributable incremental transaction costs and the related income tax effects, is included in equity attributable to the company’s equity holders.(d) Share-based payment reserve
Upon the vesting of any equity instruments granted by the group, the group transfers the related share-based payment reserve to accumulated profits or loss.
The group issues contracts that transfer insurance risk or financial risk or both. Insurance contracts are those contracts that transfer significant insurance risk. Such contracts may also transfer financial risk. As a general guideline, the group defines a significant insurance risk as the possibility of having to pay benefits, on the occurrence of an insured event, that are at least 10% more than the benefits payable if the insured event did not occur. Investment contracts are those contracts that transfer financial risk with no significant insurance risk. Financial risk is the risk of a possible future change in one or more of a specified interest rate, financial instrument price, commodity price, foreign exchange rate, index of prices or rates, credit rating or credit index or other variable. Amounts received under investment contracts are recorded as deposits under investment contract liabilities. Amounts paid under investment contracts are recorded as deductions from investment contract liabilities.
Insurance contracts are classified into two main categories depending on the duration of risk and whether or not the terms and conditions are fixed.
These contracts are casualty, property and short-duration life insurance contracts. For all these contracts premiums are recognised as revenue (earned premiums) in profit or loss proportionally over the period of coverage. Premiums are shown gross of commission and reinsurance and exclude any taxes or duties levied on premiums. Claims and related claims adjustment expenses are charged to profit or loss as incurred based on the estimated liability for compensation owed to contract holders or third parties damaged by the contract holders.(b) Short-term insurance liabilities
The following are classified as short-term insurance liabilities:
Short-term insurance premiums are recognised in profit or loss proportionately over the period of cover for even risk business or in line with the exposure to risk. The portion of premium accrued on in-force contracts that relates to unexpired risks at the reporting date is reported as an unearned premium liability, which is included in insurance-related payables from underwriting activities.
Liabilities for unpaid claims are estimated using the input of assessments for individual cases reported to the group and statistical analyses of the claims incurred but not reported. Outstanding claims liabilities are recognised as liabilities and included in insurance-related payables from underwriting activities. The expense is recognised in profit or loss as a result of the liability being raised. The group does not discount its liabilities for unpaid claims.
These contracts insure events associated with human life over a long duration. Premiums are recognised as revenue in profit or loss when they become payable by the contract holder. Premiums are shown gross of commission and exclude any taxes or duties levied on premiums. Benefits payable to beneficiaries are recorded as an expense in profit or loss when they are paid.(d) Long-term insurance liabilities
In terms of IFRS 4 Insurance Contracts, insurance liabilities are permitted to be measured under existing local practice. The insurance liabilities are to be valued in terms of the Financial Soundness Valuation (FSV) basis as described in Statement of Actuarial Practice 104 (SAP 104) issued by the Actuarial Society of South Africa. The result of the valuation methodology and assumptions is that profits are released appropriately over the term of the policy to avoid the premature recognition of profits that may give rise to losses in future years.
The liability is valued using a discounted cash flow approach. This approach takes the sum of future expected benefit payments and administration expenses that are directly related to the contract, deducts the expected premiums that would be required to meet the benefits and administration expenses based on the valuation assumptions used and then discounts these resultant cash flows at market-related rates of interest. The liability is based on assumptions of the best estimates of future experience as to mortality, persistency, maintenance expenses and investment income.
Compulsory margins for adverse deviations (first-tier margins) increase the liability as required in terms of SAP 104. Such margins are intended to provide a minimum level of prudence in the liabilities and to ensure that profits are not recognised prematurely. In addition, discretionary margins (second-tier margins) may be added to the liability to ensure that profit and margins for risk in the premiums are not capitalised prematurely and that profits are recognised in line with the risk profile inherent in the contracts and services provided.
Discretionary margins unwind as these risks are met over the term of each policy. Where insurance contracts have a single premium or a limited number of premium payments due over a significantly shorter period than the period during which benefits are provided, the excess of the premiums payable over the valuation premiums is deferred and recognised as income in line with the decrease of unexpired insurance risk of the contracts in force or, for annuities in force, in line with the decrease of the amount of future benefits expected to be paid. The long-term insurance liabilities are recalculated annually by independent actuaries.(e) Receivables and payables related to insurance contracts
Receivables and payables are recognised when due. These include amounts due to and from agents, brokers and insurance contract holders. If there is objective evidence that the insurance receivable is impaired the group reduces the carrying amount of the insurance receivable accordingly and recognises the impairment loss in profit or loss. The group gathers evidence that an insurance receivable is impaired using the same process adopted for loans and receivables.(f) Embedded derivatives
The group does not separately measure embedded derivatives in an insurance contract if the embedded derivative itself qualifies for recognition as an insurance contract. Such an embedded derivative is measured as an insurance contract. All other embedded derivatives are separated and carried at fair value if they are not closely related to the host insurance contract and meet the definition of a derivative.(g) Deferred policy acquisition costs (DPAC)
Commissions and other acquisition costs arising from property and casualty short-term insurance contracts that vary with, and are related to, securing new contracts and renewing existing contracts are capitalised. All other costs are recognised in profit or loss when incurred. The DPAC is subsequently amortised and recognised in profit or loss over the life of the policies as premiums are earned.
For long-term insurance contracts commissions and other acquisition costs are recognised in profit or loss when incurred. The portion of the premium which recoups these costs is included in the valuation of long-term insurance contract liabilities. The commission and other acquisition costs are therefore implicitly deferred over the period of the contract in the calculation of the liabilities under long-term insurance contracts.(h) Value of business acquired (VOBA)
On acquisition of a portfolio of contracts, either directly from another insurer or through the acquisition of a subsidiary company, the group recognises an intangible asset representing the VOBA.
The VOBA represents the present value of future profits embedded in acquired insurance contracts. The group amortises the VOBA over the effective life of the acquired contracts on the same basis as DPAC. The group assesses the value for impairment annually. This amortisation and any impairment are recognised in profit or loss.(i) Liability adequacy test
At each reporting date, for contracts measured on a retrospective basis, liability adequacy tests for insurance contracts are performed to ensure the adequacy of the contract liabilities. In performing these tests current best estimates of future contractual cash flows and claims-handling and administration expenses, as well as investment income from the assets backing such liabilities, are used. For contracts measured on the financial soundness valuation basis, the financial soundness basis is a discounted cash flow method, which meets the requirements of a liability adequacy test. Any deficiency is immediately charged to profit or loss.(j) Reinsurance contracts held
Contracts entered into by the group with reinsurers, under which the group is compensated for losses on one or more contracts issued by the group and that meet the classification requirements for insurance contracts, are classified as reinsurance contracts held. Contracts that do not meet these classification requirements are classified as financial assets. The benefits to which the group is entitled under its reinsurance contracts are recognised as reinsurance assets and are included in insurance-related receivables from underwriting activities. These assets consist of short-term balances due from reinsurers, as well as longer-term receivables that are dependent on the expected claims and benefits arising under the related reinsured insurance contracts. Amounts recoverable from, or due to, reinsurers are measured consistently with the amounts associated with the reinsured insurance contracts and in accordance with the terms of each reinsurance contract.
Reinsurance liabilities are primarily premiums payable for reinsurance contracts and are recognised in profit or loss when due. The group assesses its reinsurance assets for impairment at each reporting date. If there is objective evidence that the reinsurance asset is impaired the group reduces the carrying amount of the reinsurance asset to its recoverable amount and recognises the impairment loss in profit or loss. The group gathers evidence that a reinsurance asset is impaired using the same process adopted for financial assets held at amortised cost.(k) Salvage and subrogation reimbursements
Some insurance contracts permit the group to sell property acquired in settling a claim (in other words, salvage). Estimates of salvage recoveries are included as an allowance in the measurement of the insurance liability for claims. Salvage property is recognised as an asset when the liability is settled. The allowance is the amount that can reasonably be recovered from the disposal of the property.
The group may also have the right to pursue third parties for payment of some or all costs (in other words, subrogation). Subrogation reimbursements are also considered as an allowance in the measurement of the insurance liability for claims and are recognised as assets when the liability is settled. The allowance is based on an assessment of the amount that can be recovered from the action against the liable third party.
The group issues investment contracts without fixed terms (unit-linked) and investment contracts with fixed and guaranteed terms (capital guarantees). Investment contracts without fixed terms are financial liabilities whose fair value is dependent on the fair value of underlying financial assets, derivatives or investment property (unit-linked) and are designated at inception as financial assets at fair value through profit or loss.
Valuation techniques are used to establish the fair value at inception and at each reporting date. The group’s main valuation techniques incorporate all factors that market participants would consider and are based on observable market data. The fair value of a unit-linked financial liability is determined using the current unit values that reflect the fair values of the financial assets contained within the group’s unitised investment funds linked to the financial liability, multiplied by the number of units attributed to the contract holder at the reporting date. If the investment contract is subject to a put or surrender option the fair value of the financial liability is never less than the amount payable on surrender, discounted for the required notice period, where applicable.
The group classifies its financial liabilities into the following categories:
The classification depends on the purpose for which the financial liabilities were acquired. Management determines the classification of financial liabilities at initial recognition.
Financial liabilities are recognised when the group becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument. Financial liabilities are initially recognised at fair value, net of transaction costs incurred in the case of financial liabilities not at fair value through profit or loss.
The best evidence of fair value on initial recognition is the transaction price, unless the fair value is evidenced by comparison with other observable current market transactions in the same instrument or based on discounted cash flow models and option pricing valuation techniques whose variables include only data from observable markets. Where the transaction price is not necessarily the fair value of the financial asset the day-one gain or loss is deferred and recognised over the term of the liability.
A substantial modification of the terms of an existing financial liability or a part of it shall be accounted for as an extinguishment of the original financial liability and the recognition of a new financial liability.
The group derecognises a financial liability when its contractual obligations are discharged, cancelled or expired.
This category has two subcategories:
A financial liability is classified as held for trading if the linked financial asset associated with this liability is acquired principally for the purpose of selling in the short term or if it forms part of a portfolio of financial assets in which there is evidence of short-term profit-taking. Derivative liabilities are also classified as held for trading, unless they are designated as hedges at inception.
All classes of financial liabilities classified on the statement of financial position as ‘financial liabilities held under multi-manager investment contracts’ are designated at fair value through profit or loss.
A financial liability is designated as fair value through profit or loss where the group determines such a designation will eliminate an accounting mismatch because the related assets are carried at fair value through profit or loss. All classes of financial liabilities classified on the statement of financial position as ‘liabilities of cell-captive insurance contracts’ are designated as fair value through profit or loss.
Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss are measured at fair value, with subsequent changes in fair value recognised in profit or loss.(b) Financial liabilities at amortised cost
Financial liabilities at amortised cost are non-derivative financial liabilities with fixed or determinable payments and fixed maturities.
Financial liabilities classified as financial liabilities at amortised cost comprise borrowings and trade and other payables. Subsequent to initial recognition these financial liabilities are measured at amortised cost and any difference between the proceeds, net of transaction costs and the redemption value, is recognised in profit or loss over the period of the borrowings, using the effective interest method.
Deferred tax is recognised using the balance sheet method, providing for temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and the amounts used for taxation purposes.
Deferred tax is not recognised for the following temporary differences:
Deferred tax is measured at the tax rates that are expected to be applied to temporary differences when they reverse, based on the laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the reporting date.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset if there is a legally enforceable right to offset current tax assets and liabilities and they relate to income taxes levied by the same tax authority on the same taxable entity or on different tax entities, and the company intends to settle current tax assets and liabilities on a net basis or their tax assets and liabilities will be settled simultaneously.
A deferred tax asset is recognised for unused tax losses, tax credits and deductible temporary differences, to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profits will be available against which the temporary differences can be utilised. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each reporting date and are reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that the related tax benefit will be realised.
Deferred tax relating to fair value remeasurements of available-for-sale assets and cash flow hedges, which are recognised in other comprehensive income, are accumulated in equity and are subsequently reclassified into profit or loss together with the deferred gain or loss.
Group companies operate various pension schemes. The schemes are generally funded through trustee administered funds, determined by periodic actuarial calculations. The group has both defined benefit and defined contribution plans. The pension plans are funded by payment from the relevant group companies and/or by employees.
A defined contribution plan is a post-employment benefit plan under which the group and/or employees pay fixed contributions into a separate entity. The group has no legal or constructive obligations to pay further contributions if the fund does not hold sufficient assets to pay all employees the benefits relating to current or prior employee service. The group pays contributions to the plan on a mandatory, contractual or voluntary basis. The group has no further payment obligation once the contributions have been paid. Obligations for contributions to defined contribution pension plans are recognised as an employee benefit expense in profit or loss when they are due.
A defined benefit plan is a post-employment benefit plan that defines an amount of pension benefit that an employee will receive on retirement, usually dependent on one or more factors such as age, years of service and compensation.
The liability recognised in the statement of financial position in respect of defined benefit pension plans is the present value of the defined benefit obligation at the reporting date less the fair value of plan assets. The present value of the defined benefit obligation is determined by discounting the estimated future cash outflows using interest rates of high-quality corporate bonds that are denominated in the currency in which the benefits will be paid, and that have terms to maturity approximating the terms of the related pension obligation. In countries like South Africa where there is no deep market for corporate bonds the government bond rate is used. This rate is the yield at the reporting date on government bonds that are denominated in the currency in which the benefits will be paid and that have terms to maturity that approximate the terms of the group’s obligation.
The calculation is performed annually by qualified actuaries using the projected unit credit method.
The net interest cost is calculated by applying the discount rate to the net balance of the defined benefit obligation and the fair value of plan assets. This cost is included in employee benefit expense in the statement of profit or loss.
Remeasurement gains and losses arising from experience adjustments and changes in actuarial assumptions are recognised in the period in which they occur, directly in other comprehensive income. They are included in retained earnings in the statement of changes in equity and in the balance sheet.
Changes in the present value of the defined benefit obligation resulting from plan amendments or curtailments are recognised immediately in profit or loss as past service costs.
When the calculation results in a benefit for the group, in other words plan assets exceed the defined benefit obligation, the recognised asset is limited to the present value of economic benefits available in the form of any future refunds from the plan or reductions in future contributions to the plan. The group measures the economic benefits available to it in the form of refunds or reductions in future contributions at the maximum amount that is consistent with the terms and conditions of the plan and any statutory requirements in the jurisdiction of the plan in accordance with IFRIC 14.
Remeasurement gains and losses arising from experience adjustments and changes in actuarial assumptions are charged or credited to other comprehensive income in the period in which they arise.
Past-service costs are recognised immediately in profit or loss.
The group’s current service costs of the defined benefit plans are recognised in profit or loss in the current year.(b) Post-retirement medical obligations
In terms of certain employment contracts, the group provides post-retirement medical benefits to qualifying employees and retired personnel by subsidising a portion of their medical aid contributions.
The entitlement to these benefits is based upon employment prior to a certain date and is conditional on employees remaining in service up to retirement age. New employees are not entitled to this benefit. The expected costs of these benefits are accrued over the period of employment, using an accounting methodology similar to that for defined benefit pension plans.
The post-retirement medical obligation has been partly funded through an insurance arrangement with a subsidiary company of the group.(c) Leave pay provision
Short-term employee benefit obligations are measured on an undiscounted basis and are recognised in profit or loss as the related service is provided. A liability is recognised for the amount that is expected to be paid in the form of annual leave entitlements if the group has a present legal or constructive obligation to pay this amount as a result of past services provided by the employee and the obligation can be estimated reliably.(d) Termination benefits
Termination benefits are payable when employment is terminated by the group before the normal retirement date, or whenever an employee accepts voluntary redundancy in exchange for these benefits. The group recognises termination benefits at the earlier of the following dates: (a) when the group can no longer withdraw the offer of those benefits; and (b) when the entity recognises costs for a restructuring that is within the scope of IAS 37 and involves the payment of termination benefits. In the case of an offer made to encourage voluntary redundancy the termination benefits are measured based on the number of employees expected to accept the offer. Benefits falling due more than 12 months after the end of the reporting period are discounted to their present value.
The group operates a number of equity-settled, share-based compensation plans under which the entity receives services from employees as consideration for equity instruments (shares) of the group. The fair value of the employee services received in exchange for the grant of the shares is recognised as an expense. The total amount to be expensed is determined by reference to the fair value of the shares granted:
At the end of each reporting period the group revises its estimates of the number of shares that are expected to vest, based on the non-market vesting conditions and service conditions. It recognises the impact of the revision to original estimates, if any, in the income statement, with a corresponding adjustment to equity.
In addition, in some circumstances employees may provide services in advance of the grant date and therefore the grant date fair value is estimated for the purposes of recognising the expense during the period between service commencement period and grant date.
When the shares vest, in some circumstances, the company issues new shares to settle.
In other circumstances, when shares vest, the company settles using shares of the company previously acquired from the market.
The grant by the company to the employees of subsidiary undertakings in the group is treated as a capital contribution. The fair value of employee services received, measured by reference to the grant date fair value, is recognised over the vesting period as an increase to investment in subsidiary undertakings, with a corresponding credit to equity in the parent entity accounts.
Provisions are recognised when the group has a present legal or constructive obligation, as a result of past events, for which it is more likely than not that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation. Provisions are determined by discounting the expected future cash flows at a pre-tax discount rate that reflects the current market assessment of the time value of money and, where appropriate, the risks specific to the liability.
A provision for onerous contracts is recognised when the expected benefits to be derived by the group from a contract are lower than the unavoidable costs of meeting the obligations under the contract. The provision is measured at the present value of the lower of the expected cost of terminating the contract and the expected net cost of continuing with the contract. Before a provision is established the group recognises any impairment loss on the assets associated with that contract.
A provision for restructuring is recognised when the group has approved a detailed and formal restructuring plan, and the restructuring either has commenced or has been announced publicly. Future operating costs are not provided for. Where there are a number of similar obligations, the likelihood that an outflow will be required in settlement is determined by considering the class of obligations as a whole. A provision is recognised even if the likelihood of an outflow, with respect to any one item included in the same class of obligations, may be small.
Where the group expects a provision to be reimbursed, for example under an insurance contract, the reimbursement is recognised as a separate asset, but only when the reimbursement is virtually certain.
Provisions are reviewed at the end of each financial year and are adjusted to reflect current best estimates.
Assets acquired under lease agreements that transfer substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership to the group are accounted for as finance leases. The asset is capitalised at the lower of the fair value of the asset or the present value of the minimum lease payments upon initial recognition, with an equivalent amount being stated as a finance lease liability. The capitalised asset is depreciated over the shorter of the useful life of the asset or the lease term. Lease payments are apportioned between finance costs and capital repayments using the effective interest method.
Finance costs are allocated to each period during the lease term so as to produce a constant periodic rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. Finance costs are recognised in profit or loss over the lease period.(b)Operating leases
Other leases are operating leases and the leased assets are not recognised on the group’s statement of financial position. Payments made under operating leases, net of any incentives received from the lessor, are recognised in profit or loss on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease. Lease incentives received are recognised as an integral part of the total lease expense over the term of the lease.
When an operating lease is terminated before the lease term has expired any payment required to be made to the lessor by way of a penalty is recognised as an expense in the period in which termination takes place.
Transactions are classified as contingencies when the group’s obligations depend on uncertain future events not within its control. Items are classified as commitments when the group commits itself to future transactions with external parties.
Income from operations, which excludes value added tax, comprises:
Income is recognised based on the stage of completion determined with reference to the value of the assets transferred.
Interest and other finance income received in the form of an interest margin are recognised in profit or loss on a time proportionate basis using the effective interest method. Any directly related interest expense is recognised on the same basis.
The profit from operations before non-trading and capital items is made up of trading activities of the group. The trading activities are those revenues and expenses generated by the business operations of the group which are regularly reported to the board of directors when making resource allocation decisions and assessing operational performance.
Items of an exceptional nature which are not considered to be fundamental to the resource allocation and performance of business operations are thus disclosed separately as non-trading and capital items. The separate disclosure of these items consequently achieves representative disclosure of activities normally regarded as operating in nature.
Non-trading activities relate to items such as the group professional indemnity insurance cell, adjustments arising due to business combinations, non-recurring items linked to corporate finance activities, items related to historical client settlement, impairment losses and recoveries, and capital gains or losses on sale of non-current assets. Items of a non-trading nature do not form part of management’s consideration of the operational performance or allocation of resources of the group.
Investment income comprises interest income on funds invested, dividend income and fair value gains on financial assets at fair value through profit or loss. Interest income is recognised on a time proportionate basis in profit or loss, using the effective interest method. Dividend income earned on preference share investments held as money market investments is also recognised on a time proportionate basis using the effective interest method. All other dividend income is recognised when the right to receive payment is established, which is the ‘ex’ dividend date for equity securities.
Finance costs comprise interest expense on borrowings and unwinding of discount on provisions and contingent consideration and fair value losses on financial assets at fair value through profit or loss. All borrowing costs are recognised in profit or loss using the effective interest method.
Income tax expense comprises current and deferred taxes, capital gains tax, as well as secondary tax on companies applicable in South Africa. Due to the nature of indirect taxes, including non-recoverable value added tax, stamp duty, and skills development levies, these are included in operating expenses in profit or loss.
Current tax and deferred tax is recognised in profit or loss except to the extent that it relates to a business combination, or items recognised directly in equity or in other comprehensive income.
The current income tax and capital gains tax charges are the expected tax payable or receivable on the taxable income or loss for the year, using applicable tax rates enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date, and any adjustment to tax payable in respect of prior years. Current tax payable also includes any tax liability arising from the declaration of dividends.(b) Deferred tax
Deferred tax is recognised in respect of all temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and the amounts used for taxation purposes as detailed in the relevant accounting policy note. Effective 1 April 2012, STC has been replaced by dividend withholding tax. The local rate for dividend tax is 15%.
An operating segment is a component of the group that engages in business activities from which it may earn revenues and incur expenses, including revenues and expenses that relate to transactions with any of the group’s other components.
All operating segments’ operating results are reviewed regularly by the group’s key decision-makers (the group executive committee, ultimately overseen by the board of directors) to make decisions about resources to be allocated to the segments and assess its performance and for which discrete financial information is available.
Segment results that are reported to the key decision-makers include operating income net of direct expenses (net revenue) and profit from operations before non-trading and capital items (trading result) directly attributable to a segment.
Non-current assets, or disposal groups comprising assets and liabilities, that are expected to be recovered – primarily through sale rather than through continuing use – are classified as held for sale. The assets, or disposal group, are measured at the lower of their carrying amount and fair value less costs to sell. Any impairment loss on a disposal group first is allocated to goodwill, and then to remaining assets and liabilities on a pro rata basis, except that no loss is allocated to financial assets, deferred tax assets, or employee benefit assets, which continue to be measured in accordance with the group’s accounting policies. Impairment losses on initial classification as held for sale or distribution and subsequent gains and losses on remeasurement are recognised in profit or loss.
Gains are not recognised in excess of any cumulative impairment loss. Intangible assets and property and equipment once classified as held for sale are not amortised or depreciated.
A discontinued operation is a component of the group’s business that represents a separate major line of business or geographical area of operations that has been disposed of or is held for sale. Classification as a discontinued operation occurs upon disposal or when the operation meets the criteria to be classified as held for sale, if earlier. When an operation is classified as a discontinued operation the comparative income statement and statement of other comprehensive income and statement of cash flows are represented as if the operation had been discontinued from the start of the comparative year.
The following critical accounting assumptions and judgements have been applied when preparing these financial statements:
The actuarial value of policyholder assets and liabilities arising from long-term insurance contracts is determined using the Financial Soundness Valuation method as described in SAP 104 of the Actuarial Society of South Africa.
The method requires a number of assumptions as inputs to the valuation model. The process followed to determine the valuation assumptions is outlined in note 33.2: Insurance payables.2. Ultimate liability arising from claims under short-term contracts
The estimation of the ultimate liability arising from claims under short-term insurance contracts has several sources of uncertainty. The risk environment can change suddenly and unexpectedly owing to a wide range of events or influences. There is no absolute certainty in respect of identifying risks at an early stage, measuring them sufficiently or correctly estimating their real hazard potential. Over time the group has developed a methodology that is aimed at establishing insurance provisions that have a reasonable likelihood of being adequate to settle all its insurance obligations. Refer to note 33.3: Insurance payables for more details.3. Errors and omissions in the ordinary course of business
Due to the nature of its activities the group is exposed to various actual and potential claims, lawsuits and other proceedings relating to alleged errors and omissions or non-compliance with laws and regulations in the conduct of its ordinary course of business. As with any business with similar operations to the group, the risk exists that new claims relating to past events and significant adverse developments in past claims could result in material changes to provisions made in respect of prior years. Refer to note 29: Provisions for further information.4. Goodwill
The group created significant goodwill and intangible assets upon its reorganisation in 2007 in terms of IFRS 3. These asset balances are evaluated for impairment on an annual basis. This evaluation is based on the estimation of future cash flows and discount rates as further explained in note 15: Goodwill.5. Fair value
The group’s policy for determining the fair value of financial instruments is described in the Accounting Policies. The group holds a number of financial assets and liabilities that are designated at fair value through profit or loss. Full disclosure of the valuation hierarchy and sensitivities is contained in the risk management section of this report. Refer to note 46: Financial risk.6. Retirement benefit obligations
The present value of the post-retirement medical benefit obligations and the defined benefit pension funds is determined on an actuarial basis based on various assumptions. The assumptions used in determining the net cost (income) for the post-retirement medical benefit obligation and the defined benefit pension fund include, inter alia, the discount rate which is used to determine the present value of estimated future cash outflows expected to settle the obligation. The group, in conjunction with a professional actuary, determines the appropriate discount rate at the end of each year. In determining the appropriate discount rate the group considers the interest rates of high-quality corporate bonds that are denominated in the currency in which the benefits will be paid and that have terms to maturity approximating the terms of the related post-retirement medical benefit obligation and the defined benefit pension funds.
The expected salary and pension increase rates are based on inflation rates, adjusted for salary scales and country-specific conditions. The inflation rate used is a rate within the government’s monetary policy target for inflation and is calculated as the difference between the yields on portfolios of fixed interest government bonds and a portfolio of index-linked bonds of a similar term.
Other key assumptions for post-retirement medical benefit obligations are based in part on current market conditions. Additional information is disclosed in note 27: Employee benefits.
Any changes in these assumptions will impact the carrying amount of post-retirement medical benefit obligations and defined benefit pension funds.